Chanting In The Synagogues

King David introduced the use of instrumental music in temple worship during his reign. God had never instructed it and before David it had not occurred. At the time of Jesus, instrumental and vocal worship at the temple was prominent. However, in the synagogues, singing was limited to chanting of the Psalms.

Why chanting instead of singing or instrument playing that was present at the temple? Here are five possible contributing factors which scholars cite:

  1. The Babylonian culture may have had some influence on the development of music in Jewish worship.
  2. It may be that the return from exile was accompanied with the beginning of Rabbinic influence and dominance. In fact, it appears that, from about the 2nd century B.C. onward, the synagogues came to be greatly dominated by the Pharisees who emphasized their legalistic teaching therein. The rabbis apparently taught that a proper life of piety resulted from increased knowledge of Scripture. This may have contributed to the emphasis being more on instruction than on worship through music.
  3. Perhaps the main reason that the use of instruments in worship ceased in the synagogues was that the Rabbis decided to forbid such. According to their views, such could possibly lead to work on the Sabbath. Musical instruments remained a part of the Sabbath service in the temple because the rabbis apparently could do nothing regarding their presence there. But they could and did prohibit them outside the temple for fear that playing an instrument on the Sabbath, a permissible act in and of itself, might lead inadvertently to the musician’s tuning it, or mending it, or carrying it from one public place to another – all of these being forbidden acts of work. Since the main synagogue service took place on Sabbath mornings, no musical instrument could become an integral component thereof.
  4. The rabbis gave another reason for banning instruments of music (as well as other types of singing): they apparently felt such joyous or celebratory music would be inappropriate in light of the sorrows that were being experienced by the Jews (i.e., the destruction of the temple and their exile). The rabbis apparently felt that such an attitude of mourning should be carried into the synagogue service as well. They quoted Hosea 9:1, “Do not rejoice, O Israel, with exultation (or “merriment”) like the nations,” and then declared: “An ear listening to songs will surely be cut off…. A song in the house means destruction is at its threshold” (Sotah 48a, as given by
  5. The music of the synagogues was further influenced by the legalistic and puritanical ethic of the rabbis in regards to their concern over promiscuity. They taught, “A woman’s voice is indecency” (Ber. 24a, as given by; and, “Men singing and women answering is promiscuity; women singing and men answering is like fire set to chaff” (Sotah 48a, as given by These excessive fears of promiscuity led to the separation of men and women, and ultimately to only men singing in the synagogue in worship.1

Now, the definition of chanting is probably not what you’re thinking of, the idea of repeating words or phrases in a rather stagnant tone. Ken Collins defines it as this:

“To some people, the word ‘chant’ refers to mindless repetitions of the same words and phrases. But ‘chant’ is actually a technical term for a specific musical form-a simple melody in which you sing a number of words or syllables on the same note. Or you might say that a ‘song’ is words set to music, but a ‘chant’ is music set to words. The most well-known chant is the musical setting of the Lord’s Prayer, which is more elaborate than most chants. Chants were invented to encourage congregational singing, since they require less musical skill than songs. The advantage of chanting is that most any text can be chanted to any tune without modifying either the tune or the text, and that makes it an ideal way to put scripture to music.”2

The Psalms were apparently chanted in the synagogues by alternating verses sung by two groups, or where a soloist alternates with a choir in singing verses.

Consider also the passage in Ephesians that was probably written by Paul with the idea of chanting in mind, “speaking to one another in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing and making melody with your heart to the Lord.”3


2 Ibid.
3 Ephesians 5:19

The Similarities Between Synagogue Worship and Sunday Christian Worship

Did God provide a pattern of worship for Christians who seek to worship Him? Very little is said in the New Testament as to what things we are to do in a “worship service.” It may be that our template for a worship service is taken from the traditions of a Jewish synagogue service. Many of those who first became Christians were first Jews. We see in Paul’s letters that as a matter of familiarity, many Jews held onto their religious customs even after they had accepted Christianity. Jesus never set in place a pattern for church worship, rather he emphasized the individual characteristics a Christian should have, this being the weightier matter of Christianity. In his letters, we see that Paul molded and shaped the assemblies that everything should be done decently and in order and referenced examples of what went on in them, but it was never Paul’s mission to set up the format of a Sunday worship service. Paul was to be an apostle to the gentiles, “that I might preach him among the Gentiles.”1 Notice that he does not say that I might preach the manner in which we are to perform a Sunday worship service among the Gentiles. Paul’s mission was to preach about Jesus, the Messiah. So what do we use as our basis for the model of worship in our services? Where does it all come from?

The Origin of the Synagogue
While there is some debate as to the exact timing, the synagogue probably arose while the Jews were in Babylonian captivity, in order to keep themselves focused on God during a time of despair.2 By that time, the temple had been destroyed and the people were not able to offer sacrifices or attend the annual feasts. It was a necessary addition that helped remind them that they were God’s people and what his will for them was.

The synagogue became a place where the people could come and listen to the word of God read, receive instruction, and worship.3 Its main focus was was more upon instruction in the Law than upon “exuberant worship and praise through sacrifice and music (both vocal and instrumental)” that was present at the temple.4 After the captivity had ended and the temple rebuilt, the synagogues still continued to multiply across the landscape. By the time of Jesus, Matthew and Luke state that there was a synagogue in every city.5

Worship In The Synagogue
On the Sabbath, the people would gather to worship God in a man-made fashion. In other words, no where in the Bible was the idea of a synagogue ever sanctioned by God. Even still, we see that Jesus frequented the synagogue to read from the scriptures. The following is a summarized description of that worship given by Philip Schaff (History of the Christian Church):

The Building

  1. The building was a plain, rectangular hall of no peculiar style of architecture, and in its inner arrangement somewhat resembling the Tabernacle and the Temple.
  2. It had benches for the elders and richer members (the higher ones “the chief/uppermost seats” mentioned in Matthew 23:6 and also perhaps James 2:2-3), a reading-desk or pulpit, and a wooden ark or closet for the sacred rolls (called “Copheret” or Mercy Seat, also “Aaron”).
  3. A sacred light was kept burning as a symbol of the divine law, in imitation of the light in the Temple. Other lamps were brought in by devout worshipers at the beginning of the Sabbath (Friday evening).
  4. Alms-boxes were provided near the door, as in the Temple, one for the poor in Jerusalem, another for local charities.


  1. Every synagogue had a president or leader (Crispus in Acts 18:8, and Sosthenes in 18:17, and Jairus in Luke 8:41; John 12:42-43 says that many leaders believed but would not confess Jesus).
  2. There were elders (Zekenim) equal in rank.
  3. There was a reader and interpreter.
  4. There were one or more envoys or clerks, called “messengers” (Sheliach).
  5. There was a sexton or beadle (Chazzan) for the humbler mechanical services.
  6. There were also deacons (Gabae zedaka) for the collection of alms in money and produce.
  7. Ten or more wealthy men at leisure, called Batlanim, represented the congregation at every service.
  8. Each synagogue was independent, but kept regular correspondence with other synagogues.
  9. It was also a civil and religious court, and had power to excommunicate and to scourge offenders (as mentioned in Matthew 10:17; 23:34; Luke 12:11; 21:12; John 16:2; Acts 22:19; 26:11).


  1. It was simple, but rather long, and embraced three elements, devotional, didactic, and ritualistic.
  2. It included prayer, song, reading, teaching of Scripture, the rite of circumcision, and ceremonial washings.
  3. The prayers and songs were chiefly taken from the Psalter, which may be called the first liturgy and hymn book.
  4. The opening prayer was called the Shema or Keriath Shema, and consisted of two introductory benedictions, the reading of the Ten Commandments (afterward abandoned) and several sections of the Pentateuch, namely, Deut. 6:4-9; 11:13-21; Num. 15:37-41.
  5. Then followed the eighteen prayers and benedictions (Berachoth). These benedictions are traced in the Mishna to the one hundred and twenty elders of the Great Synagogue. They were no doubt of gradual growth, some dating from the Maccabean struggles, some from the Roman ascendancy. The prayers were offered by a reader, and the congregation responded “Amen.” (This custom also passed into the Christian church as seen in 1 Corinthians 14:16).
  6. As there was no proper priesthood outside of Jerusalem, any Jew of age might get up to read the lessons, offer prayer, and address the congregation. Jesus and the apostles availed themselves of this democratic privilege to preach the gospel, as the fulfillment of the law and the prophets.6

Do you see many of the similarities that we have in place today? Paul mentioned many of these ideas in his letters: benches, a pulpit, elders, deacons, prayer, song, reading, teaching, song book, etc. Paul used the existing format being practiced by the Jewish-Christians and brought it into practice within the Gentile congregations being established.

Examples of Jewish Christian Worship
We are given examples in the Bible of the Jewish Christians continuing to follow their Jewish traditions. It may have been that they continued to observe the Sabbath, feasts, and hours of daily prayer. To both groups, Jews and early Christians, even their scriptures were the same, the Tanakh (Old Testament).

  • The early Christians were “day by day continuing with one mind in the temple…” (Acts 2:46)
  • Peter and John were going to the temple because it was the hour of prayer. (Acts 3:1)
  • Christians going to the temple on a regular basis. (Acts 5:21, 42)
  • Paul continued to observe the traditions of Jewish worship. (Acts 21:26; 22:17; 24:11-12; 24:18)
  • Paul preached on the Sabbath. (Acts 13:14, 42-44; 16:13; 17:2; 18:4)
  • Christians may have continued to follow the Jewish practice of worship on the Sabbath. (Romans 14:5-6a, Colossians 2:16)
  • Several passages refer to the early Christians gathering in the synagogues for the purpose of worship and teaching others. (Acts 9:2; 9:20; 13:5; 13:14ff; 13:42-44; 14:1; 17:1ff; 17:10; 17:17; 18:4ff; 18:26; 19:8; 22:19; 24:11-12; 26:11; James 2:2)
  • Just as every synagogue had elders and instructors, so also the early church came to have elders/bishops in every church (Acts 14:23) whose primary responsibility was to lead the congregation and care for its spiritual needs. (Hebrews 13:17)
  • The synagogues typically had men designated to gather and distribute alms to those in need, so also the early church came to have deacons who had similar responsibilities. (Acts 6:1-7)

The Lord’s Supper
Jesus had commanded that the Lord’s Supper was to be observed on the first day of the week, the day he rose from the dead, on Sunday. Many of the Christians was to partake at a seperate time and place than in the synagogues. They may have still gathered for Sabbath worship at the synagogue, but as the Sabbath ended at sundown and the next day began, it may have been that they continued together that evening to fulfill the Lord’s Supper on what we would consider to be Saturday night.

In addition to this after Sabbath partaking of the Lord’s Supper, the early church often celebrated it as part of or at the end of the agape (love) meal.7 Perhaps a mirror of Jesus’ establishing the memorial as part of the last supper, the meal was a time of unity shared by the Christians. It appears, however, that this practice was being misued by the Corinthian Christians. They were being selfish during the meal and perverting it, and were unable to partake of it with the proper attitude and love for one another. Paul denounced their selfish ways in 1 Corinthians 11:17-22 and suggested that they should eat it at home if they’re unable to do so properly while they are gathered together.

For reasons unknown, the practice of eating the Lord’s Supper along with the agape meal ended sometime around the beginning of the 2nd century.

The Separation of Judaism and Christianity
Believers of both Judaism and Christianity soon began to grow apart as the Christians grew in wisdom and their understanding of Christ and his fulfillment of the Law. The Jews who remained unconvinced, continued in the old practices and beliefs. Even still, the customs and traditions of the synagogue way of worship had been set in place in the Christian minds. It was the synagogue practices of the Jewish Christians that inspired the idea and practices of the “worship service” that we know and practice today.

Read about the synagogue practice of chanting.


1 Galatians 1:16
4 Ibid.
5 Matthew 4:23, Acts 15:21
6 Schaff, Philip. History of the Christian Church (Volume 1; Chapter 9: Worship in the Apostolic Age). Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1910.

The Unknown Man of Mark

The four gospels describe the account of Jesus’ betrayal by Judas and subsequent arrest. However, Mark stands alone in the gospel accounts when he throws in some additional trivia that leaves the reader wondering. Mark 14:51-52 reads:

A young man was following Him, wearing nothing but a linen sheet over his naked body; and they seized him. But he pulled free of the linen sheet and escaped naked.

What was Mark trying to confer to us when he decided to add that to the gospel record? What point was he trying to make?

Mark describes the young man as a neaniskos, possibly 15 to 25 years old. The term, “to follow”, akoloutheo, means “was following as a disciple” or “was accompanying.” Interestingly, only one other time does Mark describe another man as a neaniskos, when he tells of the man in a long white robe who was in Jesus’ tomb when he was raised. “Entering the tomb, they saw a young man sitting at the right, wearing a white robe; and they were amazed.” (Mark 16:5)

The typical Jew did not have a closet full of clothes as we do today to pick and choose from as clothing was very expensive. In fact, the average Jew only owned two garments, a tunic for everyday use and an overcoat for inclement weather.1 Some also may have worn undergarments, as we can assume from Peter when he was fishing since he was “stripped for work.” (John 21:7)

During the time of Jesus’ arrest, trial and crucifixion it would have been chilly as it was still early in the season, around the 5th of April and late into the night. This begs the question, why was this man wearing only a sheet to cover his body on such a cold night? We are also told later that night that Peter warmed himself by the fire during Jesus’ trial while in the courtyard of the High Priest. Since we don’t hear about this man earlier in the evening when Jesus was praying in the garden, it may be safe to assume that he came with the crowd of soldiers that Judas brought to arrest Jesus. He may have grabbed the first piece of clothing available to him and, in haste, followed the men out to the garden of Gethsemane when he heard what was going to happen to Jesus.

So who was this man who was following Jesus after his arrest? When all Jesus’ closest friends had abandoned him, this young man does not run away, but follows him. The apostles had all scattered in the paragraph prior to this man’s mentioning, so we can safely assume that this was not an apostle. Here are a few possibilities:

  • Some alledge that the man was Mark, speaking of himself in the third person. How else would he have known to write about it.
  • The editors of the Oxford Annotated New Revised Standard Version have guessed that this man was the one who lent the Upper Room to Jesus and his disciples to eat their supper that night.
  • Ralph Earle notes in Word Meanings in the New Testament, “This brief incident is found only in this Gospel. It might be Mark’s way of saying, ‘I was there.’ If the Last Supper took place in the home of John Mark’s mother (cf. Acts 12:12), Judas Iscariot may have returned there first to betray Jesus. We can then understand how John Mark would be roused, perhaps grab a sheet to cover his body, and rush to [Gethsemane] to warn Jesus.”2
  • Another possibility is the correlation he may be making with Amos 2:16 which reads, “‘Even the bravest warriors will flee naked on that day,’ declares the Lord.”
  • In the second chapter, Amos is relating the words of the Lord regarding the judgement that is to come upon Israel for their sins because they have not kept his statues. They have turned away from him and He will judge the nation for its immoral actions. Mark may be drawing a tie between the symbolism this man represents and the soon to be coming judgement on the nation of Israel.

We will probably never know the identity of this man, nor why Mark decided to write about him. What we do know is that when the disciples fled, as cold as he may have been this man bravely stayed, at least for a while, accompanying Jesus. Yet even in the end, this man ultimately desperately fled from his presence, willing disgrace (nakedness) over following Jesus to the end.


2 Ralph Earle, Th.D. Word Meanings in the New Testament, One-Volume Edition (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 1986), p. 47.

New Testament Worship

          As Christians, we fight a battle every day of our lives. We don our spiritual armor, securing the breastplate of righteousness, buckling our belt of truth around our waist, the helmet of salvation on our head, and our feet are strapped with the shoes of the gospel of peace. In our left hand, we hold the shield of faith and in our right, the sword of the Spirit. With our armor shined and shimmering, we are ready to enter the battle that faces us every day – the battle against sin. We gather with our fellow comrades in arms every week to hammer out the dents in our armor and re-shine it to its previous glory. We become strengthened from each other knowing we all fight the same battle together and that we are not lone soldiers struggling against all odds to defend our fortress. We lay down our swords, take off our packs and resupply ourselves with spiritual food and encouragement as we prepare ourselves for another week on the battlefield. For two-thousand years, Christians from every region, culture, and background have fought the same battle under the direction of the New Testament.

          Gone are the animal sacrifices, religious feasts, and temple worship which enslaved the Israelites. We went from a ministry of death to a ministry of life; from a ministry of condemnation to a ministry of righteousness; from a covenant written on stone to a covenant written on the heart of man; from a covenant whose glory was fading to a covenant whose glory continues to shine; from a covenant destined to be done away with to a covenant destined to last forever.1 Worship lost its geographical significance for Jews with the abolishment of the old law and can now be found in the hearts of Christians as we worship in spirit and in truth.2 The old law was fulfilled by a Jewish Rabbi from Nazareth, named Jesus, who came to wipe out our debt and in doing so set us free from its bondage. Our lives are to be emulations of his as we endeavor to follow in his footsteps. Likewise, our assemblies are gathered to praise him while giving us strength in order to carry on in our daily fight for righteousness. As soldiers for Christ, we are to live our lives in the service of our King, worshiping him in both our individual lives and while assembled together – only then is our spiritual worship whole.

          As Christians, we have entered into a covenant with God. God has granted us eternal life and in exchange we no longer live for ourselves, but dedicate our lives to serving him. Paul declared that we are to “present [our] bodies as a living sacrifice, holy and acceptable to God, which is [our] spiritual worship.”3 Therefore, every moment of every day should be dedicated to him. Even if all we are doing is nothing more than eating a meal we are told to do all to God’s glory.4 Our individual worship then is to be more than a prayer said at dinner time, but an entire lifestyle. Imagine if we paused in the middle of a fierce firefight to hang up our armor, find a tree to lie down beside and take a nap. Would our enemy do the same or take advantage of the opportunity we’ve just given him? Our spiritual armor is worn to protect us while we are out in the world facing the hurdles of sin as they are placed in front of us. It is meant to become dented and tarnished, otherwise we are not truly in the fight.

          This covenant also requires that we obey Jesus’ commandments. He did not present a list of “thou shalt” and “thou shalt not’s” during his time here on earth as was given to Moses under the old law, rather he presented his life as an example for us to imitate. Author Marcus Borg wrote:

“Jesus is also a model for the Christian life. The notion is expressed in the gospels with the image of discipleship. To be a disciple of Jesus meant something more than being a student of a teacher. To be a disciple meant ‘to follow after.’ Whoever would be my disciple, Jesus said, ‘Let him follow me.’ What does it mean to be a follower of Jesus? It means to take seriously what he took seriously, to be like him in some sense. It is what St. Paul meant when he said, ‘Be imitators of Christ.’”5

Jesus showed us how to live, by living the example himself. He taught his disciples what it meant to live as God wanted us to live. Even so “Jesus’s New Testament Commandments are not to be obeyed/observed as a way to reach Heaven, but as an act of obedience, love, and reverence for our Savior, and because He said, ‘If ye love me, keep my commandments.’”6 Yet of all the commands he gives in the gospels, Jesus explained the two greatest commandments from which all the rest follow: “‘…love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind.’… The second is like it, ‘You shall love your neighbor as yourself.”7 All of Jesus’ commandments rest upon this idea of love, while loving someone requires more than telling them we love them, but requires that we show them through our deeds. The totality of our Christian lives focuses on this one concept. It is this idea of love that is also meant to transfer into our assembly worship.

          What we do not find in the new covenant is a formula for worship in an assembly. In a sermon regarding worship, John Piper states:

“Let’s begin with a startling fact, namely, that in the epistles of the New Testament there is very little instruction that deals explicitly with corporate worship—what we call worship services. . . . Why are the very epistles that are written to help the church be what it ought to be in this age almost totally devoid of … explicit teaching on the specifics of corporate worship? … In the New Testament there is a stunning indifference to the outward forms and places of worship. And there is, at the same time, a radical intensification of worship as an inward, spiritual experience that has no bounds and pervades all of life.”8

So why aren’t we given the blueprint for how to conduct worship in the assembly on Sunday? The simplest reason is probably because one does not exist. Our assembly worship is based upon examples that were practiced in the early apostolic churches of the first century. In turn, that gathering resembled the synagogue worship that the Jews of Jesus’ time were used to attending.9 The apostles then used the pre-existing synagogue worship format as a template for what then became the pattern for Christian assembly for both Jews and Gentiles.

          Worship under the old law was centered around the nation of Israel, but the new covenant was to be preached to all nations, from all backgrounds. Paul’s mission was to evangelize to the diversity of the Gentile nations and so he became all things to all men in order to win some.10 One example of this is a letter Paul wrote to Philemon, a slave owner. While Christianity does not condone slavery, Paul worked within the bounds of Gentile culture to send the runaway slave, Onesimus, back to his master and be in subjection to him. The idea of culture acting as an expression of worship then enters into the equation. Christopher Ellis of the West Bridgford Baptist Church notes:

“The question of culture cannot be avoided, for everything done and said in worship, as elsewhere, is expressed through cultural means. There is no culture-neutral essence of worship-only the encounter with God through the lens of one’s own culture or those cultures that have been adopted or imposed. Many worship conflicts are about style-yet opponents claim to argue about substance.”11

          Culture, and thereby tradition, play a role in how we conduct our assembly worship. The traditional American idea of worship typically follows what came out of the reform movement in the mid 19th century. Yet, another culture exists in America that, because of its roots, differs in how God is worshiped. Reynolds Chapman reflects on his experience in a black assembly:

“The hymnals I was familiar with were, by default, “white heritage hymnals.” This hymnal, [the African American Heritage Hymnal], was one record of the story of God’s faithfulness in the black church over the years. I also began to see how the songs we sang in worship told our current stories. During our Wednesday evening services, we have a sharing and testimony time, when we take turns telling of God’s work in our lives. I noticed that sometimes instead of speaking, church members would simply begin to sing—and everyone else would join in after the first line. After the song was over, whoever chose it would say, ‘That is my testimony.’”12

Such a service in another culture may seem out of sorts to those that hold the traditional reformed view, yet even Paul encountered these differences in style. It required him to alter himself, instead of altering the people to fit the message of Christ.

          It is our human nature that wants to draw a black and white line of what is permitted for us to do in worship services. However, the Bible does not dictate the process in which we worship, only its components. While there isn’t a recipe for assembly worship, what we have instead are examples of what is to be done “decently and in order,”13 namely instances of praising God, praying, singing, scripture reading, preaching, and partaking of the Lord’s Supper. God has left the formulation of these elements to our careful assemblage.

          More important than formulation, assembly should be seen as a welcomed respite for the weary Christian. Sunday worship should be the high point of a Christian’s week, a time to take a break from the scourge of the world and relax with like-minded Christians. It’s a time for the Christian soldier to let their guard down, debrief, resupply, and become encouraged as they prepare to go out again into the world for another week. Our human desire for relationships is central to the idea of assembly worship.

“Mutual indwelling demands company. Continuous outpouring demands fellowship. The corporate assembly is where love and mutual indwelling congregate; it is where believers have each other within eye and earshot, within kindly embrace. If there were no such things as church buildings and regularly scheduled services, Christians would, out of necessity, seek each other out for the sheet pleasure of finding Christ in each other, hearing different stories about his work in them, enjoying the ordinary and the exceptional, and perhaps only then gathering around what we call a liturgy. In such a gathering there would be little need at some point to say, ‘Now let us worship,’ because no one would be able to locate the dividing line between ‘now’ and ‘always.’”14

          This common ground brings us together, but where we sometimes go wrong is when love for our fellow Christian is absent. Jealousy, bitterness, and disdain for our brother or sister stands in the way of proper worship. “Christ called us to be one, as he and the Father are one, but Sunday morning is the most segregated time of the week. Our divisions compromise our faithfulness and our witness to Christ.”15 A lack of love can lead us to being guilty of interpreting to the point of division and new congregational denominations are born. This is not what Jesus wanted when he prayed for unity. We must remember who our worship is intended to glorify – not ourselves, but God.

          As Christians, we are to worship God with our whole being. We are to imitate the example that Jesus left for us, that being his very life, and to follow the commandments he has laid out for us, love being the chief of these. While the style of the assembly may vary, we are to hold true to the guidelines we see expressed for us on the pages of the New Testament. For only “when there is true worship the worshippers are truly edified.”16 With God as our King, Jesus taking the lead, and our fellow Christians at our side, we are able to stand firm together against our enemy the devil. May we be victorious!


1 “2 Corinthians 3:3-18, (NASB),”, accessed November 21, 2012,
2 “John 4:24, (NASB),”, accessed November 21, 2012,
3 “Romans 12:1-2, (ESV),”, accessed November 21, 2012,
4 “1 Corinthians 10:31, (NASB),”, accessed November 21, 2012,
5 Marcus J. Borg, Jesus A New Vision, Spirit, Culture, and the life of Discipleship, NY: HarperCollins, 1991, 192-193.
6 Samuel Mills, “The Commandments of Jesus,” Trusting in Jesus, accessed Nov 19, 2012,
7 “Matthew 22:37-39, (NASB),”, accessed November 21, 2012,
8 Michael A. Farley, “What is “biblical” worship? Biblical hermeneutics and evangelical theologies of worship.” Journal Of The Evangelical Theological Society 51, no. 3 (September 1, 2008): 591-613. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost (accessed November 10, 2012).
9 John Atkinson, “The Synagogue and the Kingdom,” CMJ South Africa, accessed Nov 19, 2012,
10 “1 Cor 9:19-23, (NASB),”, accessed November 21, 2012,
11 Christopher J. Ellis, “Who is worship for? dispatches from the war zone,” Perspectives In Religious Studies 36, no. 2 (June 1, 2009): 179-185, ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost (accessed November 10, 2012).
12 Reynolds Chapman, “Worship in black and white: racial reconciliation happens when we not only sing each other’s songs but learn the stories embedded in those songs,” Christianity Today 55, no. 3 (March 1, 2011): 26-28, ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost (accessed November 10, 2012).
13 “1 Cor 14:40, (KJV),”, accessed November 21, 2012,
14 Harold M. Best, Unceasing Worship, Biblical Perspectives On Worship and the Arts, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2003, 62.
15 Reynolds Chapman, “Worship in black and white: racial reconciliation happens when we not only sing each other’s songs but learn the stories embedded in those songs,” Christianity Today 55, no. 3 (March 1, 2011): 26-28, ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost (accessed November 10, 2012).
16 Christopher J. Ellis, “Who is worship for? dispatches from the war zone,” Perspectives In Religious Studies 36, no. 2 (June 1, 2009): 179-185, ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost (accessed November 10, 2012).