Phonemes are the sounds of letters and graphemes are the letters or a number of letters that represent a sound. While there are only 26 letters in the alphabet, there are actually many more sounds in the English language made up of a combination of letters! Here’s a chart that helps to explain it.
Instead of trying to memorize all of them, I had the kids play a game with them. Want to try it? Gather some sidewalk chalk and write some of them out. Have the child start on a square at the beginning. Then see who can make it to the last grapheme by taking turns and jumping as far as you can, saying the sounds as they go. First one there, wins! OR do it by color, only jump on the blue squares or pink squares and you must say each one correctly to go to the next. First one to get them all wins!